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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

要大力弘扬工匠精神,厚植工匠文化,恪尽职业操守,崇尚精益求精,培育众多“中国工匠”,打造更多享誉世界的“中国品牌”,推动中国经济发展进入质量时代。

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不过,日本央行(BoJ)仍决定不加大货币政策刺激力度。该行指出,工业产出是日本经济疲软的领域之一。当然,就业市场等日本经济的其他领域,表现要好得多。
房地产市场低迷降低了对铁矿石、能源和其他大宗商品的需求。全球供应增加加剧了供需差距并推低了原材料价格。尽管中国出台了多项措施,例如去年11月的降息,但预计这种情况近期不会发生变化。
据《重庆晨报》报道,经调查后,荣昌警方于4月29日以危害公共安全的罪名逮捕了周某。

单词global 联想记忆:
quality
8、苹果发布会

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

建材市场供过于求 家居大鳄纷纷败走青岛

4. 詹妮弗-安妮斯顿 2100万美元
However, the figures suggest that the pace of Chinese investment in western economies may be slowing.
1. 1234562. password3. 123456784. qwerty5. abc1236. 1234567897. 1111118. 12345679. iloveyou10. adobe12311. 12312312. admin13. 123456789014. letmein15. photoshop16. 123417. monkey18. shadow19. sunshine20. 1234521. password122. princess23. azerty24. trustno125. 000000

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

经济学家表示,香港住宅市场和商业地产市场都将受到一些相同因素的损害:中国增长放缓、人民币贬值、中国内地反腐以及美国低利率环境将走向终结的预期。然而,住宅市场的发展还受到一个额外因素的阻碍,即2012年政府为减少香港房地产市场上的投机活动而出台的“降温”措施。
It took almost 45 years for this 13-hour shaggy-dog experiment to reach American screens, but the timing turned out to be perfect. Mr. Rivette’s mischievous ramble through Paris, French literature and a handful of perennial philosophical puzzles (What is the nature of reality? How do we know what we know? What is the relation of effect to cause?) is both a charming, newly rediscovered artifact of its hectic time and a bulletin from the cinematic future. Everything has already been done, and everything is still possible.
To provide assistance to these laid-off workers will continue to be our priority in cutting overcapacity and pursuing the supply-side structural reform.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • n. 生存,幸存者
  • 门窗业进入设计“井喷时代”
  • 据第三方市场情报公司IDC日前公布的数据显示,去年中国智能手机制造商华为、OPPO以及vivo的年出货量大增,使得三家企业都成为了世界前5大智能手机制造商。
  • 家居业缔造“资本传说” 有望出现大企业集团
  • 北京家居行业协会首建维权绿色通道
  • 他仅面临这几个障碍:他的手下、国会里的共和党人以及总统行政权的限度。而这几个障碍都非常有分量。他竞选时声称要对中国货物征收45%关税的承诺,已经变成对中国知识产权做法展开调查。
    此外,由于该机构的一些业务涉及为政府提供教育方面的建议,此类员工的专长是很宝贵的。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 楼市活跃度提升 后续调控难言放松, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

多城共有产权房开始“落地” 能否托起“夹心层”的安居梦?

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

成本上涨与市场低迷 TOTO薪资事件折射行业无序竞争

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 不会。傻子才会去预测足球比赛的结果。最好是作事后诸葛亮。目前已经举办过20届世界杯。其中,巴西(5次捧杯)和德国(4次捧杯)是决赛常客。主场优势有所帮助,东道国赢得了6次奖杯。但是明年的世界杯将在俄罗斯举行,而这位东道主在参赛队伍中排名垫底。
    北京市旅游发展委员会指出,污染问题是中国在吸引外国游客入境旅游的过程中面临的又一障碍。
  • 格温o史蒂芬尼的广告在好几个应用上同时推出,其中就有总部位于硅谷的短信应用Tango。Tango主要通过用户收件箱里的广告赚钱,但它已采用了Swyft的平台,该公司广告和平台副总裁理查德o拉百特表示,这类广告非常契合人们使用Tango的方式。一年前,Tango决定不再卖贴纸了,因为向用户要钱总会带来很多摩擦。拉百特称:“在人们沟通过程中放上一道‘留下买路钱’的大门绝不是我们希望带给用户的体验。”所以,就由Swyft来提供这种广告吧。
    其次,尽管人们还守着老的观念,现实却已经发生了变化:供应链管理——也就是确保货物以尽可能低的价格和尽可能高的效率到达目的地——已经成为一项高科技、高风险的行业了。它要求从业者“硬件能力”和“软件能力”缺一不可,而能达到这种要求的人才实在很少。
    罗杰斯对于中间剧情的反转十分不满,因此在拍完前三季之后决定离开剧组。这样的违约行为使他面临数百万美元的诉讼。但讽刺的是,韦恩·罗杰斯从来没有正式和剧组签订过合同(他涉及道德条款方面的问题)。因此该诉讼请求被驳回。你可能会说在这次的事件中,罗杰斯是笑到最后的人,但自从他离开剧组,《风流医生俏护士》又播出了八季,而罗杰斯在他的演艺生涯中再也没有取得过这样的成就。所以说他是笑到最后的人,也许只是一个相对的说法。
    productive
    This way you can tell everyone to shut up and get out so you can go to your "mind palace".

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 北京人口蓝皮书发布:户籍人口、外来人口双降
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 委员建议:住宅用地自动续期明确期限

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

中国国家统计局数据显示,10月份,食品价格的再次放缓拉低了中国的通胀率。
On the a monthly basis prices fell by an average 0.5 per cent.
位于第三位的是收入5.95千万的Fleetwood Mac,尽管这支乐队有三位男士,它也以拥有两位备受瞩目的女星为荣,她们是史蒂薇.妮克丝和最近回归的克莉丝汀麦克,是她们造就了本次上榜。乐队的巡回演唱会On With The Show在打分期间共有86场演唱会,在每个城市平均挣得超过1百万。
Among the amenities spread through its three terminals are two 24-hour movie theaters screening the latest blockbusters for free, a rooftop swimming pool and a butterfly garden.
adj. 有才能的,有天赋的
protein
prosperity

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 中国外汇储备出现史无前例的下跌,已经引发市场担心:如果资本外流持续下去,而央行继续捍卫汇率,外储可能迅速蒸发。多数分析师相信,中国央行将被迫缩减干预力度,以免外汇储备进一步枯竭。
  • 国际品牌加速布局中国市场 中粮广场“没落”显颓态
  • 获奖者:布兰妮·斯皮尔斯
    “Given the unfavourable reaction to the August depreciation, we think any further depreciation will not take place soon,” said Louis Kuijs, an economist at Oxford Economics based in Hong Kong. “In our view the October trade data keep pressure on [the government] for more domestic easing.”
  • 【建筑篇】金科美学:营造中国人的美好家园
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Will businesses finally shed their caution?
    v. 伸展,展开,传播,散布,铺开,涂撒
  • 专家警告说,在普通词汇中添加数字或符号根本没用。斯莱恩说:“黑客们都知道你的小伎俩,对容易破解的密码稍作调整不会更安全。”
    “我们的人口和就业正处于历史高位,并在不断增长。这给租金和房价施加了很大压力,”纽约大学富曼房地产及城市政策中心(Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy of New York University)的主任马克·威利斯(Mark Willis)说,“现在没有理由认为这些趋势可能发生改变。”
  • Certainly, the emails have already started flooding in celebrating various products in shades of Rose Quartz and Serenity. But I wonder: Are we suddenly going to see a host of blended pastel ties, as opposed to the currently popular red and blue, popping up in the next round of presidential debates? Place your bets now.
    Despite China's rise, an "innovation divide" persists between developed and developing countries amid increasing awareness among policymakers that fostering innovation is crucial to a vibrant, competitive economy.
  • *最佳综艺节目台本创作:《约翰?奥利佛上周今夜秀》(Last Week Tonight With John Oliver)
    美国有540位富豪入选,是世界上最多的国家。中国和德国则分别有251人和120人入选,分列二、三位。
    这也是短信应用独有的棘手问题。在消费内容时,我们希望广告乖乖待在一边。没人想在聊天时突然有条广告蹦出来。雷表示:“人们在聊天时最不想看到的就是打断对话的广告条或弹出式广告。可能这在非个人的网络上还管用,但在短信中,人们最恼火的就是看到传统广告。”
  • Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri is a darkly comic drama from Academy Award winner Martin McDonagh.
    At least two Harvard professors, however, questioned the decision to withdraw the offers. Alan Dershowitz, an emeritus professor at Harvard Law School, told the Guardian that losing admission to Harvard was a "draconian punishment" for "very bad taste jokes that students were sending to each other".
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 杭州进一步加强房地产中介监管 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

国家发展改革委外资司召开中法第三方市场合作项目推进会

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

女业主独住避暑烂尾楼 方圆一公里只有20多户

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

儿童家具市场迎发展商机 衣柜企业勿让“商机”变“危机”

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

陕一廉租房小区地基下沉:维修两轮耗资超9000万

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • n. 行为,举动,品行
  • 35岁的阿德里亚娜·利马身着一件凸显身材的白色抹胸式礼服。这位巴西模特选择了简单又时髦的装扮,她把头发扎了起来,戴着一条抢眼的项链,项链上缀满了钻石。
  • 互联网造就智慧社区新模式

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • n. 宪章,特许,(船、机、车等的)租赁
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • They're the top three most unaffordable housing markets in the world, according to the 13th Annual Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey: 2017, published recently.
    《南华早报》援引当地公安局李剑敏告诉新华社记者的消息:“整个加工车间里又腥又臭,人进去待一两分钟就受不了。”
    7. Get Comfortable
  • 裘德韦伯(Jude Webber)

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 尽管中国的私人财富大幅增长,但中国的亿万富豪仍未跻身全球顶级富豪行列。胡润估计,中国首富、万达集团(Wanda Group)掌门人王健林在全球富豪中排名第26位。
  • 多种销售新模式冲击下 传统家具卖场居于何地位
  • n. 外表,外貌,出现,出场,露面

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 房地产税法拟5年内提请审议
  • Household substance abuse
  • 威宁西南水泥余热发电运行并网
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

今天砸百万元当房奴 明天真能变成千万富翁?

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 北京平谷首个棚改回迁房开建 明年竣工可“拎包入住”
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 社科院:预计今年房价平稳回落 一二线城市或探底
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

源于:strike(v 打击;军事进攻;铸造;敲钟;罢工)

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

每平方英尺单价:667美元(每平方米约合人民币4.6万元)
We will make a big push for progress in the reform of the social system.
It makes piggybacks more comfortable.
8、邦德并不是个喜剧演员 但他懂得合适的时候来点小幽默。女性很容易被有趣的男人吸引,因为幽默标志着智慧。可以这么讲,一个人多有趣,可以来推断他与多少女人风流过。
For the students interested in comparing school options around the world, US News released the fourth edition of its annual Best Global Universities rankings.
Harry Potter fans, it's time for another movie. A prequel to the Harry Potter films, Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them follows the adventures of Newt Scamander in an ancient New York. It is based on the Hogwarts textbook in Harry Potter by the same name.
谁会与一位王室成员击掌呢?尽管他年龄不大。
南韩的活动分子在星期二发誓,要在月底通过宣传气球跨越边境向北韩偷运荷里活讽刺片"刺杀金正恩",以作为对北韩不断威胁的反抗。
汇丰的报告表示:“总的新业务在以温和的幅度增长,这与10月份没什么不同。然而,11月的数据显示外国需求继续疲软,新增出口业务的扩张幅度是6月份以来最低的。”
他补充说,原本的故事情节里有个无法回避的问题,因为格洛本来的设定是个深陷对邦德的欲望而无法自拔的女同性恋。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

数据显示6月楼市成交量继续攀升 同比或增六成

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • The report said there were now 594 dollar billionaires in China, putting China ahead of the United States' 535. However, none of China's super-rich make it into the global top 20.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 如果你是一个腼腆的人,那么一开始坐在前排可能会让你有点不自在。但是,我向你保证,这是接受老师传授的内容的最好的办法之一。你也可以听得更清楚。不用伸长脖子,你就可以看到黑板上所有的内容。
  • 光伏行业兼并重组加快 行业呈回暖态势
  • A total of 13.14 million new urban jobs were added.
  • 雄安站建设提速 将引入津保京雄石等4条线路
  • But what drives the underlying optimism or pessimism? Koudijs, working with Hans-Joachim Voth at the UniversitatPompeuFabra in Barcelona, found surprising answers.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 宜家再次投资LED公司 力图降低LED成本
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 北弗罗里达大学的一个有趣的实验证明光脚跑步比穿鞋跑步更能提高记忆力。和那些在实验室和室内坐在桌子边进行的试验不同,在这个实验中,研究人员们引入了一些有趣的观点来探索提高记忆力的奥秘。实验的研究对象为“工作记忆”,即人们加工信息和回顾生活细节的能力。科学家们发现,光脚跑步比起穿鞋跑步来说,可以对记忆力产生轻微的提高。在试验中,年龄为18-44周岁的参与者们被要求跑两轮,一次穿鞋,一次不穿鞋。
  • Passion, perseverance and a positive attitude tend to set successful entrepreneurs apart. Cultivating these attributes requires an innate skill set and some tips to get started.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

不动产登记实施近满月 谁在纠结?

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